An Introduction to R

This is an introduction to R (“GNU S”), a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. R is similar to the award-winning1 S system, which was developed at Bell Laboratories by John Chambers et al. It provides a wide variety of statistical and graphical techniques (linear and nonlinear modelling, statistical tests, time series analysis, classification, clustering, …).

This manual provides information on data types, programming elements, statistical modelling and graphics.

This manual is for R, version 3.4.2 (2017-09-28).

Copyright © 1990 W. N. Venables
Copyright © 1992 W. N. Venables & D. M. Smith
Copyright © 1997 R. Gentleman & R. Ihaka
Copyright © 1997, 1998 M. Maechler
Copyright © 1999–2016 R Core Team

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manual into another language, under the above conditions for modified versions, except that this permission notice may be stated in a translation approved by the R Core Team.