Chapter 16 Environment variable index
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tar version 1.15 or later, or that from the ‘libarchive’ (as used on macOS versions 10.6 and later) or ‘Heirloom Toolchest’ distributions.
for some Subversion clients ‘http:’ may appear to work, but requires continual redirection.
Most aspects will work with paths containing spaces, but external software used by R, e.g.
4.8, may not.
which use lib rather than lib64 for their primary 64-bit library directories.
Instructions on how to install the latest version are at https://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/fonts/inconsolata/.
on a Unix-alike, ‘inconsolata’ is omitted if not found by
This will be needed if more than one sub-architecture is to be installed.
with possible values ‘i386’, ‘x64’, ‘32’ and ‘64’.
mainly on RedHat and Fedora, whose layout is described here.
How to prepare such a directory is described in file src/extra/tzone/Notes in the R sources.
for example, -fopenmp, -xopenmp or -qopenmp. This includes for
clang 3.7.x and the Intel C compiler.
Currently this is a valid option for
g++ 5 and later and 2016 versions of the Intel and Solaris compilers. For earlier versions of
g++ one could try -std=c++1y.
This is true for earlier versions of
g++ such as 4.2.1, and also for commonly-used versions of the Solaris compiler
Currently only GCC 6 and later, but this has been mooted for others.
For when features were supported, see https://gcc.gnu.org/projects/cxx-status.html#cxx11.
The installer as puts links to
Rscript in /usr/local/bin. If these are missing, you can run directly the copies in /Library/Frameworks/R.framework/Resources/.
The framework for R 3.3.x was named
pkgutil –pkgs | grep org.r-project to check for earlier versions of R.
More precisely, of the package of the same name: this means that installing a package for 3.3.x does 3.4.x does not remove an installation of the other series.
unless they were excluded in the build.
its binding is locked once the startup files have been read, so users cannot easily change it.
If a proxy needs to be set, see
for a small number of CRAN packages where this is known to be safe and is needed by the autobuilder this is the default. Look at the source of tools:::.install_packages for the list. It can also be specified in the package’s DESCRIPTION file.
or by adding it in a file such as etc/i386/Makevars.site, which does not exist by default.
Note that capitalization and version may differ from the Open Source project.
using a path containing spaces is likely to cause problems
They need to have been created using -headerpad_max_install_names, which is the default for an R package.
‘X/Open Portability Guide’, which has had several versions.
On some systems setting
LC_MESSAGES to ‘C’ disables
If you try changing from French to Russian except in a UTF-8 locale, you will most likely find messages change to English.
the language written in England: some people living in the USA appropriate this name for their language.
also known as IEEE 754
at least when storing quantities: the on-FPU precision is allowed to vary
e.g. Bessel, beta and gamma functions
including copying MkRules.dist to MkRule.local and selecting the architecture.
also known as IEEE 754
Note that C11 compilers need not be C99-compliant: R requires support for
double complex and variable-length arrays which are optional in C11 but is mandatory in C99.
Examples are -std=gnu99, -std=c99 and -c99.
-std=c99 excludes POSIX functionality, but config.h will turn on all GNU extensions to include the POSIX functionality for R itself: this does not apply to badly-written packages. The default mode for GCC 5.1 and later is -std=gnu11, which currently includes the optional features R needs.
However, it is possible to break the default behaviour of
glibc by re-specifying the
gconv modules to be loaded.
specifically, the C99 functionality of headers wchar.h and wctype.h, types
mbstate_t and functions
chdir system calls,
select on a Unix-alike, and either
most often distributed as part of
xz: possible names in Linux distributions include
sometimes known as PCRE1, and not PCRE2 which started at version 10.0.
but not a major version greater than 7 should there ever be one: the major version has been 7 since 2000.
for example to specify static linking with a build which has both shared and static libraries.
Such as GNU
tar 1.15 or later,
bsdtar (from https://github.com/libarchive/libarchive/, as used by FreeBSD and OS X 10.6 and later) or
tar from the Heirloom Toolchest (http://heirloom.sourceforge.net/tools.html).
texi2dvi is normally a shell script. Some versions (including that from texinfo 5.2 and 6.0) need to be run under
bash rather than a Bourne shell, especially on Solaris. Some of the issues which have been observed with broken versions of
texi2dvi can be circumvented by setting the environment variable
R_TEXI2DVICMD to the value
If necessary the path to
pkg-config can be specified by setting
PKGCONF in config.site, on the
configure command line or in the environment.
also known as
ttf-mscorefonts-installer in the Debian/Ubuntu world: see also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Core_fonts_for_the_Web.
ttf-liberation in Debian/Ubuntu.
This is true even for the ‘Aqua’ version of Tk on macOS, but distributions of that include a copy of the X11 files needed.
Using the Oracle Developer Studio
and ‘i686’ for earlier versions.
We have measured 15–20% on ‘i686’ Linux and around 10% on ‘x86_64’ Linux.
We believe that versions 3.4.0 to 3.10.1 are compatible.
fort77 is the POSIX compliant FORTRAN compiler, and comes after
as well as its equivalence to the
Rcomplex structure defined in R_ext/Complex.h.
at the time of revsion of this para in 2017, autoconf-2.69 from 2012 and automake-1.15 from 2015.
The links there have proved difficult to access, in which case either point an FTP client at ftp://www.eecs.harvard.edu/pub/nr/ or grab the copy made available at http://developer.r-project.org/noweb-2.11b.tgz.
X11 font at size 14 could not be loaded.
glibc: other C libraries such as
musl have been used but are not routinely tested.
-mtune=corei7 for Intel Core i3/15/17 with
gcc ≥ 4.6.0.
This also needs the OpenMP runtime which has sometimes been distributed separately.
It will be necessary to install later versions of software such as
Apple provides a partial emulation of GNU readline 4.2 based on the NetBSD
editline library. That is not recommended but for the time being R’s installation scripts will make use of it if GNU readline is not found.
These days that is defined by Apple’s implementation of
clang, so it is strongly recommended to use that.
Some of these are unsigned packages: to install them you may need to right-click and select
Open with -> Installer.
It was reported that for some non-Apple toolchains
CPPFLAGS needed to contain
-D__ACCELERATE__: not needed for
clang 4.0.0, though.
tlmgr install cm-super helvetic inconsolata texinfo .
This is not the case if the non-default
configure option –without-internal-tzcode was used – but R then does not pass its checks.
For more details see http://www.macstrategy.com/article.php?3.
In the unlikely event that the version reported does not start with
1.8.0 you need to update your Java.
Oracle Solaris Studio prior to 2016, and previously Sun Studio.
using the -V flag.
When last checked it failed in tests/reg-BLAS.R, and on some builds, including for ‘amd64’, it failed in
In particular, header cmath in C++11 mode includes math.h and iso/math_c99.h and
gcc had ‘fixed’ an earlier version of the latter.
For example, the Cygwin version of
make 3.81 fails to work correctly.
find and perhaps